more History of the Royal Forest of Dean
The Royal Forest of Dean was designated as a national forest
park in 1938, the unique heritage and culture of the Forest reflects
a close working relationship between people and the environment.
The underlying rocks of the Coal Measures, Carboniferous Limestone
and Old Red Sandstone together with the rich veins of haematite
ore gave rise to the mining and quarrying industries.
The existence of coal and iron ore, together with charcoal from the Forest for smelting, stimulated early industrial development in the area. Since Roman times this mineral wealth has been explored, exploited and exported’. The digging for iron has left distinctive galleries or 'scowles’ in the rock face; the coal mining has produced tips of waste and furnaces and forges line river courses. Today, these symbols of the Forest industrial past have been softened by time and today are integrated into the landscape. These scowles can be seen by visiting Puzzle Wood and Cinderbury.
Coal mining, until 1955 was one of the area’s main industries with five collieries (the last closed in 1965), and is still undertaken at a few small mines operated by Freeminers. The centuries old mining rights (applied to iron ore, coal and other minerals and even quarrying for stone) entitle any male born within the hundred of St Briavels, aged 21 or more and who has worked for a year and a day in a mine to legally register as a Freeminer with the chance of being granted a 'gale’ of coal (or ore). Hopewell Colliery and Clearwell Caves offer underground tours and are ideal bases from which to learn more about the Forest’s Freeminers
The 19th century saw the major development of industry. Enterprise and innovation combined with rich natural resources brought inventions, investors and workers to the Forest from many parts of Britain. Industrialisation demanded improved communications and better transport links. In the late 19th century original tram roads were converted to railways with all the Forest towns connected to the main lines bordering the area and linking with the docks at Lydney. Lydney Harbour has
recently been restored to preserve its historical importance as
a key player in the industrial development of the Forest of Dean.
As a woodland, the Forest of Dean has played an important part
in the heritage of Britain especially from the 17th century when
the oak timber, and indeed iron, became important for the expanding
shipbuilding industry. The exploitation of the area’s timber and iron ore resources continued throughout the Civil War but in 1649 recommendations were made for the conservation and management of the Forest. This was pursued by a Commission whose long-term work was scuppered by growing demand from the Navy. It was not until the Dean Forest (Reforestation) Act 1668 that effective management commenced, albeit dogged with trouble for another 120 years. During a visit to the Forest in 1802, Lord Nelson highlighted that the 'finest timber in the kingdom’ was
in a deplorable state. Consequently 30 million acorns were planted
across 11,000 acres, but the oak was redundant before half grown
thanks to its rapid replacement in shipbuilding by iron and steel!
Despite further demands during the war years, the Forest, due
to careful planting and felling programme's, has maintained much
of its traditional appearance. In addition, much of the war-time
felling was replanted with oak and other broad leaved mixtures.
The National Forest policy of 1958 emphasised the need for timber
production but highlighted the need for due regard to amenity and
Visit the Dean Heritage Centre to discover more about the Forest’s fascinating history and heritage.